Pyinotify监控系统使用方法

简介

Pyinotify是一个Python模块,用来监测文件系统的变化。 Pyinotify依赖于Linux内核的功能—inotify(内核2.6.13合并)。 inotify的是一个事件驱动的通知器,其通知接口通过三个系统调用从内核空间到用户空间。pyinotify结合这些系统调用,并提供一个顶级的抽象和一个通用的方式来处理这些功能。

1.pyinotify 说百了就是通过 调用系统的inotify来实现通知的
2.inotify 既可以监视文件,也可以监视目录
3.Inotify 使用系统调用而非 SIGIO 来通知文件系统事件。

内容

pyinotify 支持的系统事件, 和 C语言版本的inotify相一致, 同样也是:

Inotify 可以监视的文件系统事件包括:

Event Name Is an Event Description
IN_ACCESS Yes file was accessed.
IN_ATTRIB Yes metadata changed.
IN_CLOSE_NOWRITE Yes unwrittable file was closed.
IN_CLOSE_WRITE Yes writtable file was closed.
IN_CREATE Yes file/dir was created in watched directory.
IN_DELETE Yes file/dir was deleted in watched directory.
IN_DELETE_SELF Yes 自删除,即一个可执行文件在执行时删除自己
IN_DONT_FOLLOW No don't follow a symlink (lk 2.6.15).
IN_IGNORED Yes raised on watched item removing. Probably useless for you, prefer instead IN_DELETE*.
IN_ISDIR No event occurred against directory. It is always piggybacked to an event. The Event structure automatically provide this information (via .is_dir)
IN_MASK_ADD No to update a mask without overwriting the previous value (lk 2.6.14). Useful when updating a watch.
IN_MODIFY Yes file was modified.
IN_MOVE_SELF Yes 自移动,即一个可执行文件在执行时移动自己
IN_MOVED_FROM Yes file/dir in a watched dir was moved from X. Can trace the full move of an item when IN_MOVED_TO is available too, in this case if the moved item is itself watched, its path will be updated (see IN_MOVE_SELF).
IN_MOVED_TO Yes file/dir was moved to Y in a watched dir (see IN_MOVE_FROM).
IN_ONLYDIR No only watch the path if it is a directory (lk 2.6.15). Usable when calling .add_watch.
IN_OPEN Yes file was opened.
IN_Q_OVERFLOW Yes event queued overflowed. This event doesn't belongs to any particular watch.
IN_UNMOUNT Yes 宿主文件系统被 umount

IN_ACCESS,即文件被访问

IN_MODIFY,文件被write

IN_ATTRIB,文件属性被修改,如chmod、chown、touch等

IN_CLOSE_WRITE,可写文件被close

IN_CLOSE_NOWRITE,不可写文件被close

IN_OPEN,文件被open

IN_MOVED_FROM,文件被移走,如mv

IN_MOVED_TO,文件被移来,如mv、cp

IN_CREATE,创建新文件

IN_DELETE,文件被删除,如rm

IN_DELETE_SELF,自删除,即一个可执行文件在执行时删除自己

IN_MOVE_SELF,自移动,即一个可执行文件在执行时移动自己

IN_UNMOUNT,宿主文件系统被umount

IN_CLOSE,文件被关闭,等同于(IN_CLOSE_WRITE | IN_CLOSE_NOWRITE)

IN_MOVE,文件被移动,等同于(IN_MOVED_FROM | IN_MOVED_TO)

安装

依赖关系:

Linux ≥ 2.6.13
Python ≥ 2.4 (including Python 3.x)

方法一:

pip安装:

pip install pyinotify

方法二:

git clone法:

git clone https://github.com/seb-m/pyinotify.git
cd pyinotify/
python setup.py install

监控方法

法一:

#!/usr/bin/env python
# encoding:utf-8

import os
from  pyinotify import  WatchManager, Notifier, \
ProcessEvent,IN_DELETE, IN_CREATE,IN_MODIFY

class EventHandler(ProcessEvent):
    """事件处理"""
    def process_IN_CREATE(self, event):
        print   "Create file: %s "  %   os.path.join(event.path,event.name)

    def process_IN_DELETE(self, event):
        print   "Delete file: %s "  %   os.path.join(event.path,event.name)

    def process_IN_MODIFY(self, event):
            print   "Modify file: %s "  %   os.path.join(event.path,event.name)

def FSMonitor(path='.'):
        wm = WatchManager() 
        mask = IN_DELETE | IN_CREATE |IN_MODIFY
        notifier = Notifier(wm, EventHandler())
        wm.add_watch(path, mask,rec=True)
        print 'now starting monitor %s'%(path)
        while True:
                try:
                        notifier.process_events()
                        if notifier.check_events():
                                notifier.read_events()
                except KeyboardInterrupt:
                        notifier.stop()
                        break

if __name__ == "__main__":
    FSMonitor()

法二:

#!/usr/bin/python27
import os
from pyinotify import WatchManager, Notifier, ProcessEvent, IN_DELETE, IN_CREATE, IN_MODIFY
class EventHandler(ProcessEvent):
    def process_IN_CREATE(self, event):
        print 'Create file: %s' % os.path.join(event.path, event.name)

    def process_IN_DELETE(self, event):
        print 'Delete file: %s' % os.path.join(event.path, event.name)

    def process_IN_MODIFY(self, event):
        print 'Modify file %s' % os.path.join(event.path, event.name)

def fs_monitor(path='.'):
    # 初始化watch管理器, 用于管理事件
    wm = WatchManager()
    mask = IN_DELETE | IN_CREATE | IN_MODIFY
    # process_event 实例和 watch管理器关联, 返回通知查看对象
    notifier = Notifier(wm, EventHandler())
    # 将目标路径, 掩码添加到watch管理器
    wm.add_watch(path, mask, rec=True)
    print 'Now starting monitor: %s' % path
    while 1:
        try:
            # 同步事件
            notifier.process_events()
            # 检查是否有可读事件, 否则一直堵塞
            if notifier.check_events():
                # 读取事件
                notifier.read_events()
        except KeyboardInterrupt:
            notifier.stop
            break
fs_monitor()

执行:

py27  fs_monitor.py

输出:

[root@iZ23pynfq19Z ~]# py27  fs_monitor.py
Now starting monitor: .
Modify file ./.fs_monitor.py.swp

那么简单的一个pyinotify实例就已经写出来了, 我们可以利用这些来帮助我们干一些对实时性要求比较高的事情,例如: 类似 tail -f 监听文件~

暂无评论

发送评论 编辑评论


				
|´・ω・)ノ
ヾ(≧∇≦*)ゝ
(☆ω☆)
(╯‵□′)╯︵┴─┴
 ̄﹃ ̄
(/ω\)
∠( ᐛ 」∠)_
(๑•̀ㅁ•́ฅ)
→_→
୧(๑•̀⌄•́๑)૭
٩(ˊᗜˋ*)و
(ノ°ο°)ノ
(´இ皿இ`)
⌇●﹏●⌇
(ฅ´ω`ฅ)
(╯°A°)╯︵○○○
φ( ̄∇ ̄o)
ヾ(´・ ・`。)ノ"
( ง ᵒ̌皿ᵒ̌)ง⁼³₌₃
(ó﹏ò。)
Σ(っ °Д °;)っ
( ,,´・ω・)ノ"(´っω・`。)
╮(╯▽╰)╭
o(*////▽////*)q
>﹏<
( ๑´•ω•) "(ㆆᴗㆆ)
😂
😀
😅
😊
🙂
🙃
😌
😍
😘
😜
😝
😏
😒
🙄
😳
😡
😔
😫
😱
😭
💩
👻
🙌
🖕
👍
👫
👬
👭
🌚
🌝
🙈
💊
😶
🙏
🍦
🍉
😣
Source: github.com/k4yt3x/flowerhd
颜文字
Emoji
小恐龙
花!
上一篇
下一篇